Russian

Mikhail I. Davidov 
2014


Some Paradigms of the Internet

"What will be tomorrow? What I will turn into tomorrow?"
We by Yevgeny Zamyatin, 1920

"Remembering childhood...
tears of happiness...
the bitterness of separation ...
love of freedom...
pity for the sick puppy...
suspicious of...
maternal tenderness...
thoughts about death...
the sorrow...
friends...
love to underdogs...
sudden hope…
lucky guess...
sadness...
causeless fun...
sudden pandemonium ...
Everything, everything will be recreated by the machine!"
Life and Fate by Vasily Grossman, 1959

"And I realized that at some point there will be not just lots more computers – literally everything will be made of computers."
Stephen Wolfram, 2014 г.

 Introduction

 You know everything that is written here, you can just skip it. Then, why I wrote it?
 When you try to create something new, it is useful to have the well-known info collected together in a short and accessible form with links to primary sources. In this text, most links refer to articles in Wikipedia for two reasons: first, because in each of these articles there are lists of primary sources, secondly, almost all articles in Wikipedia are presented in major foreign languages. I have not found ways to sort out the paradigms for whatever criteria - they are just described here without making attempts to highlight the major or secondary of them, and, of course, the article lists just a few of them.

 A Brief History. On October 29, 2014 at 21:00 the Internet Turned 45.

 In the 50-s of the last century, the United States established a computer network SAGE for protection against nuclear attack, connecting 23 radar stations located in the United States and Canada.
 In 1962, ARPA’s Joseph Licklider proposed the creation of a global network of computers with free access to it for any person in the world.
 In 1963, Ted Nelsonand Robert Cailliau formulated the concept of Hypertext.
 In 1969, ARPA Agency invited universities to develop a circuit-switched network packages - ARPANET. On October 29, 1969, at 21:00 the first communication packets exchange occurred between computers located 640 kilometers afar.
 In 1971, FTP work protocol, e-mail, teleconferences, newsletters appeared.
 In 1973, the Internet has become international - phone cable connected the United States, Britain and Norway.
 In 1978, the Bell Laboratories established UUCP local area network (Mike Lesk), which included 82 IBM machines working on Unix operating system.
 In 1980, Usenet computer network, acting on the principle of newsgroups, became the basis for the creation of World Wide Web.
 In 1983, TCP/IP Protocol became operational, divided into two parts - Transmission Control Protocol (TCP, Robert Kahn) and Internet Protocol (IP, Vinton Cerf).
 In 1984, FidoNet network (Tom Jennings) and the domain name system DNS became operational.
 In 1989, the CERN’s Timothy Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau formulated the concept of the World Wide Web.
 In 1990, the first Internet site - IMDb, appeared in the Usenet network.
 In 1991, Timothy Berners-Lee suggested the HTTP Protocol. In August 1991, CERN launched the website.
 In 1993, Marc Andreessen created the first graphical Web browser NCSA Mosaic.
 In 1998, ICANN Internet regulating organization was established under the American jurisdiction. In 2015, it is planned to give it the status of an international organization.
 In 2010, the United States created a Named Data Networking Consortium (NDN) to improve the reliability, better protection, more effective content operations on the Web, and creation of Data-oriented networking, replacing TCP/IP with a new Protocol.

 The Internet is a Network Of Autonomous Networks

 The Internet is a network of autonomous networks connected by routers, and operating on the basis of BGP Protocol, routing tables and Internet agreements. Composition of servers, routers, switches, fiber-optic and wireless channels, tested high-speed laser link between astronauts and LLCD ground stations, plus more than two billion computing devices running at the same time under millions of different software systems and applications - is the most sophisticated thing created by the mankind so far.
 By the year of 2010, Google search engine was able to index only 200 terabytes out of five million terabytes of information stored on the Internet in 2010, which is just 0.004 per cent of the total volume. CISCO forecasts monthly traffic on the Internet exceeds 130 exabyte by 2018, half of which will be between mobile devices. The information volume is growing at an alarming rate – the amount of information generated on the Internet each year exceeds the amount of all the information created and kept by people in human history before the Internet arrival.
 Ahead of the creation of new technologies of information processes and information analysis.

 "In the Beginning Was the Word." Internet - From Word To "Semantic Web"

 About 40 thousand years ago, people began to create rock art. From the 9th Millennium BC, in the area between Euphrates and Nile rivers, people added sculptures pictograms, ideograms, and hieroglyphs to the rock paintings and oral expression. With the advent of cuneiform writing man learned to depict the amounts and items in the form of visual images, it was required for trade. In about 3500 BC, people started using symbols to represent the sounds of spoken word by depicted characters. Writing and visual images became the basis of the maintenance and exchange of knowledge and skills.
 It took thousands of years for people to create the modern information technologies. Starting from rock art, sculptures, images and texts on clay tablets, Papyrus scrolls, skin, tissue and paper invented in China in the second century BC, and, finally, the creation of paper machine, typesetting and printing technologies - it was all intended to transfer the acquired skills and knowledge to the others, including descendants.
 To date, the new information technologies and the new information environment, the Semantic Web, were created. Today, through Natural user interface, data mining and machine learning new information technologies are being used, including video, visualization, recognition of facial expressions, gestures, touch, tactile displays, text (including manuscripts) and speech recognition, in real time in different languages; automatic translation, saving oral language in the audio and text files, reading text, manual operations with volumetric images, creating real-time interactive 3D holographic images without a display, such as a hologram of heart "floating in the air", which, the surgeon can rotate during the surgery with the hand movement, a pregnant woman can look at color three-dimensional image of his unborn baby and many other new interfaces between man and machine.
 Never before has humankind had such information technologies.

 The Visual Image On The Internet Has Become An Information Unit

 With the purpose of better self-presentation, the Internet users are switching from thumb-typing to exchange of images. The majority of content on the Internet is shared through re-posts, so striking visual images in a very short time become available to millions of people around the world. Imaging is easily accessible: each mobile device has a camera; it’s very easy take a picture or video of interesting event or yourself, a friend, your company, etc.: see, for example, a video documentary about the heroine cat, saving the baby from the mad dog.
 The visual image has become an information unit. Designers are refining infographic technology with a view to create effective visual images with minimal use of a text. The infographics is widely used in education, press, advertising, film-making, website design, etc – people perceive a visual image completer and more quickly than text. Look at a popular video made in the style of infographics, where co-founder of the Internet Vinton Cerf discusses how the Internet works. The trends of the Internet, described in the style of infographics are available online at KPCB (2013, 2014).
 Social networking on the Internet is already self-classified - those who share their thoughts in form of text, are congregated in Facebook, those who do it in short messages are gathering in Twitter, and those who prefer to communicate exchanging visual images are grouped in Instagram. See, for example, this Photo – how many sentences will you need to describe what you see? Will your description get the same effect?
 Now, there is a very complex question to which we have no clear answer: what will happen to the written culture?

 The Internet Is a Synergistic System Of Freely Accessible Knowledge And Skills

 Synergetic system provides involvement, assistance, aid and complicity for the people. The modern technology of Web 2.0 allows Internet users to co-create content. A striking example of synergy is Wikipedia - a non-profit virtual encyclopedia, founded by Americans Larry Sanger and Jimmy Wales, and supported by the donations of volunteers; all its articles are also written by volunteers.
 On the Wikipedia site, about 500 million Internet users are reading over 30 million articles in many different languages. There are attempts to use the publication for political and commercial reasons, attempts to cheat, bugs, etc., but all that is identified and corrected by the volunteers. Recently, they published a description of the algorithm, which allows you to programmatically verify the accuracy of the information contained in the publication. Wikipedia is multilingual: (about 300 different languages) and is freely available for anyone to write new articles and to correct errors in the published articles.
 Another example of available knowledge and skills - GitHub – a social network of programmers, who publish copies of their software and documentation. They discuss the advantages and disadvantages, collectively fix bugs, develop the presented projects, using the published solutions and ideas in their projects. The network is available to any programmer, they can find there a free documentation in most programming languages, software systems, instructions, recommendations, and other information.
 Another example is Doximity - a closed social network of American physicians (used by approximately 40% of doctors in the United States), where they discuss and tip on choosing the best way to cure the patient. By the end of the year 2014, the site Instagram for doctors is scheduled to be launched, to share important medical images for the physicians.
 It should be noted separately, the creation of search engines applications like Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search, which provide access to millions of open scientific publications. Moreover, dozens of databases with freely accessible scientific publications, are working in the Internet.
 Knowledge and skills are the fundamental basis of human life, and the Internet introduced a new functionality in the basis, ensuring participation and access to any human being.

 Orwellian - Big Brothers on the Internet

 The Internet provides the individual's right to communicate and access to the information, like as to water, housing, or electricity. Some countries restrict this right – they enact regulations requiring to provide all information about the users, they get into the Internet, trying to manipulate public opinion, to influence discussions, to identify dissidents, to carry on propaganda at home and abroad, to categorize Internet users and their intentions, to classify and track the formation of ideas and concepts, to purposefully spread misinformation, to create loyal networks, to organize "actions of hatred", to punish people for the "crime-of-thinking" (George Orwell, «1984»), to block access to pages on social networking sites, or to some sites.
 The ultimate goal of big brother – to eliminate the networks which obstructing to achieve its goals. There are countries which seek to de-Americanize and to decentralize Internet services, to surround it with the state borders, turn the Internet into the governmental network.
 The Internet users sometimes find ways to elude the pressure of Big Brothers. For example, at the end of the last century some jokers were creating sites that mirrored names of the real sites, including a mirrored Google site cache - elgooG. The joke turned into a benefit for Chinese users of the Internet - Google queries in the Latin alphabet are prohibited in China, but elgooG was not included in the list of banned sites.

 There Is No Privacy And Security On The Internet Yet

 «The Internet remembers everything». To ensure confidentiality and security, programmers created the "invisible Web" in anonymous TOR network - Deep Web. Decentralized (P2P), hybrid (TOR) and highly specialized (e.g. Mixminion) anonymous networks, virtual private networks VPN, built on top of the Internet, actually do not guarantee privacy and security.
 These networks include "the correct servers from the right organizations", that deanonymize traffic and disavow cryptographic protocols. There are rumors (confirmed information not found), that in TOR network for example, it is enough to have seven "correct servers" to resolve all the problems of Big Brother – in other words, you will not hide from Him.
 In 2014, an international team of programmers created a new version of the Tails operating system, that made another attempt to ensure anonymous access through the TOR network, including the blocked sites. It will take some time to make sure that it is working. Also, attempts have been made to add to the browser application to the browser to access blocked sites.
 Research and development of confidential and secure Internet still continue.

 There Is No Digital Freedom On The Internet Yet

 «The Internet remembers everything» - that is a digital image of a person in the web. «Right to be forgotten» on the Internet is not yet implemented. People know a person they are chatting with on the Internet, and classify him, like: smart-stupid, creepy or handsomel, rich-poor, etc. In other words, a person is under the pressure of his virtual environments, especially those who are hyper-addicted to Internet. A user often wants to ask/say something, or to look/show something anonymously, not to affect his reputation within the network. However, it’s very difficult to do: try, for example, to remove the image of your home from Google Street View. Anonymity is a digital freedom on the Internet. There’s a lot of controversy about anonymity. There are attempts to limit the pressure, attacks, trolling, blocking, etc on some sites such as Snapchat, Whisper, Secret, Wickr. Further evidence of the lack of digital freedom was the announcement that Whisper shares information with Big Brothers.
 There are anonymous social network on the Internet, for example, Diaspora. It is supported by a community of volunteers, it does not belong to any person or entity and, unlike other social networks, you can use aliases in the network, thus avoiding pressure and blocking of your account. Another anonymous social network - Ello - promises, unlike Facebook, do not use advertising. Recently, Facebook apologized and announced that users will be able to use aliases and to be anonymous.
 There are online virtual anonymous clubs, there are paid services, which are "cleansing" a network reputation of a user. The problem is that anonymous networks are being extensively used by various criminal groups. We need to find some mechanism to protect the community on the one hand, while providing online privacy and security. The solution to this problem is not found yet.

 World War Between "White" and "Black" Hackers On The Internet

 There are millions of OS, databases, browsers, other programs and software complexes working on the Internet simultaneously. Let’s suggest, every tenth of the working program has one vulnerability (if fact, there’re much more of them). A vulnerability can be fatal – imagine, for instance, what kind of mess a "wrong" sysadmin can create in a public or private cloud. There are vulnerabilities in Internet protocols – for example, in 2009, due to one missed dot in a domain name, all sites and mail servers in Sweden have been disconnected from the Internet.
 Battlefield of hackers - vulnerabilities in the programs and errors made by system administrators. Keyloggers, copies of screenshots, web injections, theft of Web-forms data, use of cameras and microphones, trojans, bots, viruses, which replicate themselves and at the same time modifying their code, infections of users' computers when visiting sites (by the way, it happens more often on religious sites than on pornographic ones), blocking users' computers, attacks on vehicle computer, routers, servers, databases, «receiving money» from ATMs without a credit card, forgery of digital certificates, attacks computers with XML and ZIP «bombs», etc (see here the news about errors and vulnerabilities, and discussions about it among over a hundred thousand hackers, here is a look at the geography of digital attacks in real time).
 "Hacking is the discovery of the surrounding world" – a hacker by name of The Mentor wrote in his manifesto, published in 1986 on the site still popular among hackers. «White» hackers are fighting for the freedom of the Internet, trying to find a vulnerability, eliminate it or find a protection. For example, a hacker Aaron Swartz was fighting for free access to any content on the Internet. In 2008, in his «Guerilla Open Access Manifesto» he wrote: "Information – is the power". In 2011, he illegally published online the scientific articles from the archives of MIT, and committed suicide before the court for it in 2013. Aaron Swartz is included in the Internet Hall of Fame.
 Customers of hackers’ services can be state, commercial or criminal structures. Troels Oerting, head of Europol's Cybercrime Centre, said that European cybercriminals are not experts in the software, but they buy it from the talented «Black» hackers, which are not over a hundred people in the whole Europe.
 Some American billionaires were fond of hacking in youth, looking for vulnerabilities, committing hacks, and later, based on obtained information, created companies with new technologies and services. Today, the capitalization of these companies - hundreds of billions of dollars.
 Hackers’ World War is useful – it improves the safety and efficiency of the Internet, and it looks like it will never end. There are cases when "Black" hackers after discovering a fatal vulnerability and its threat to the Internet, surrender to the conscience and change their color.
 Hacker, if you like the Internet - check your color!

 Internet Is Included To Combat Space By The Military

 The use of information networks in control systems of civilian objects, including life support, trade, industry, health, policing, etc. make their protection a national security issue. It's hard to find a place in which software attacks on such networks would be ineffective. Why bomb the various supplies facilities, such as water, when a destructive water management program can be downloaded into computers of this system?
 This way, in addition to the fighting on the ground, at sea, in the air and in space, now we got a new region - cyberspace, and the entire Internet is included to it. All equipment: routers, switches, satellites, sensors, wired and wireless communication channels, servers, all complexes of software, protocols, databases, etc. are becoming the objects of national security and can be subjected to attacks of the enemy.
 Besides, the Internet has the opportunity to carry on propaganda, to influence the behavior of the people in the enemy countries. For example, the U.S. military created a software to manipulate public opinion through the use of false identities - programmatically implemented «personalities» with plausible background and history on social networks. Creation of a virtual computational intelligence «The Cyber Computational Intelligence (CCI)» is included in the budget of DARPA in 2015. The United States created USCYBERCOM - Cyber Command for the purpose of conducting combat operations; similar units exist in the armies of other countries.
 It looks like, thanks to the Internet, this century will be the era of the development of fundamentally new military technologies.

 Big Data on the Internet Allow For Analysis and Forecasting

 Big data - are complexes of structured (database) and unstructured (cache) information available on the Internet. Intellectual analysis of structured data (Data Mining) and all information accessible on the Internet (Web Mining) is being widely used. In Digital Marketing System (DMS) big data are actively used and there are many interesting and unexpected results. For example, the SalesPredict company on the basis of structured and unstructured data across the Internet and new algorithms to calculate the probability of making a deal, has developed the SalesPredict plugin, which generates a list of potential customers interested in purchasing a particular product (service), and allows to implement highly effective marketing campaigns in real time.
 Another example: SAP SE company and the German Football Association have jointly developed the program «Match Insights», that on the basis of the online collected data and an analysis of opponents’ game styles, made it possible to choose the best strategy for each game at the World Cup in Brazil in 2014, where the German team became the champion of the world.
 In 2011, Tim O’Reilly described «Algorithmic Regulation» - use of large data in governing a state with a view to increase the efficiency of state structures.
 Ahead is the main thing - to implement analytics to identify patterns and forecasting in the virtual space of various events, such as economic crises, epidemics, etc., even before they occur in the real world.

 A Virtual Twin Of The Internet User Is The First Step Towards Immortality

 QR code on a monument will allow to see on a phone screen the page of the deceased in the social network and/or site dedicated to him. Inheritance of rights for digital property from an Internet user, the information acquired by the user, for example, applications for the Smartphone, music, video, all the information about him and created by him, is defined by agreements with service providers that the user has to sign.
 Attempts are being made to develop a uniform legislation regarding inheritance of rights for digital property of an Internet user. But it is a complex issue and it is not yet settled. For example, in the United States there were attempts to unify legislation on access to an Internet user digital property: Act on Access to Digital Assets.
 In 2005, Google officer Ray Kurzweil in a book about artificial intelligence described «software-based» man, who will "live" in the Internet. Digital copy of a human’s virtual life was patented in 2007 by Microsoft. Today, the “intelligent” digital assistants are being used on the Internet - Apple's Siri, Google Now, Microsoft Cortana - they "own" a semantic image of theirs user, "know" what the user is interested in, chatting with him in natural language via texts or aloud, answering his questions and can speak on a variety of topics. In 2014, Hiroshi Ishiguro introduced Otonaroid – the robot that looks like an adult woman, responds to the sentences, supports conversation on general topics and can serve as a scientific consultant.
 Ahead, is the creation of a virtual doppelganger, representing and semantically "reproducing" of his master on the Internet. A great grandson will be able to ask his long deceased great grandfather about something, and to get an answer from the digital twin of the great-grandfather. A virtual digital doppelganger of an Internet user is a virtual computational intelligence, built on the basis of all the information a user created and purchased, as well as all the information about him collected by his contemporaries in the Internet. Even more interesting idea – a person will be able to teach his digital twin, who will "live" in the Internet together with his owner or independently.
 There is already some experience of creating a virtual twin by some users. The company Linden Lab developed a 3D virtual world – a gaming social network Second Life, where each player creates his own personal virtual image. Gaming virtual environment is a place for self-expression. Philip Rosedale, a creator of Second Life game, began developing a new game named High Fidelity. In that game he is going to create a digital copy of a world, where players will be able to implement anything they dream of. A virtual digital doppelganger, created by a live player, will be available to future generations.
 I wonder how the digital counterparts of the spouses will sort things out on the Internet, what they will hide, what will report and what will advise to each other. What the virtual counterpart of the spouses will do after the death of their masters, if they are not shut off? Finally, imagine that the Internet has virtual digital doubles of your friends, family, your ancestors from several generations, and you have the opportunity to chat with them online.

 Genetic Space and Internet

 On the Internet there is an access to genetic information of humans - DNA databases (for example, SMGF), there are sites (e.g., 23andMe) providing services to find relatives and ancestors. DNA Double Helix in a human cell is wrapped up and takes approximately five thousandth cubic millimeter. If this dual spiral will be deployed in line, we'll get a cut of approximately 1.8 meters long. A one person’s body has from about 70 to 100 trillion cells. If DNA Helix of all cells of one man will be unwrapped and assembled in a single line - its length is enough to stretch from the Earth to the Sun and back dozens of times! I think aliens must be sought not only in space but also «inside yourself».
 How much information is there in this line, if out of just one gram of DNA collected by Harvard University scientists they were able to burn 700 terabytes of information? How long will it take to study all genetic information? Recently, Google in order to create the human genetic map, has launched the «Baseline Study» project. In 2011, Canadian poet Christian Bök, when studying molecular biology and programming, has encoded his poem «Any Style Of Life/ Is Prim…» to the genetic code of Escherichia coli bacterium.
 Biologists, who are actively engaged in molecular computing, complain that they lack the programmers, however the programmers are increasingly engaged in developing of molecular programming languages. They have already created a biotransistor that allows making calculations inside a living cell.
 Genetic space is a platform for searching and creating new Internet technologies. Imagine how compression and encryption of information will change, if we use genetic algorithms – it might be enough to send only one digital cell package to a browser, and this digital box will "divide" under the browser control to a page or a whole site on the client machine without round-trips to the server. Well, and here’s a pure science fiction: imagine that the databases will be able to "grow" answers to queries.

 Virtual Classroom - The Internet Is Revolutionizing Education

 Approximately 45% of the inhabitants of the Earth are working, and their dependents are children, young people, pensioners, the army, the police, the firefighters, the courts, officials and so on. Due to the robotization and the use of new technologies, the number of jobs is shrinking, and the demand for highly educated professionals is growing. How many people will be unemployed because of using 3D Printers in construction and in various industries? Use of manipulators and machines in factories, robots (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), or if biologists will run bioreactors for growing meat and vegetable proteins?
 Acute problem is the cost of education. In the United States, for example, one year of studies at the private university costs more than 18 thousand dollars. Americans are actively discussing the Germany decision on the introduction of free teaching at colleges, including for foreigners. The attempts are being made to reduce training costs, to increase the efficiency of learning processes, to reduce training time.
 American universities have established a MOOC system - Massive Open Online Courses; the corporations began to open free online advanced training courses: for example, Microsoft Virtual Academy. Schools and colleges started to use Flip Teaching, which allows students to learn the material online, there’s a try to switch to personal training online; there are training courses based on the games - for example, universities and companies have started using a three-dimensional virtual world gaming social network Second Life for education purposes. There are mixed forms of education - students learn online and come to the University only to participate in seminars, for passing tests and exams. The concept of micro-teaching learning process was introduced, that generates programs close to the interests of a particular student. DARPA Agency had included in its plan the development of Full Spectrum Learning (FSL) training system.
 Online training is cheaper - a student can study online, be engaged in any time convenient to him, he will not have to spend money to buy textbooks, most online courses are free, he will need to pay for exams only. For example, in Coursera created by Stanford University professors, more than nine million students from different countries are enrolled in eleven foreign languages to about 1,000 free online courses. More than one million of them successfully completed these courses, took online video tests (it costs less than $100) and received a certificate, which is recognized by the largest employers. MIT conducted a study and came to the conclusion that online learning is effective.
 At December 8-14, 2014, in the Internet the biggest event in the history of education happened - Hour of Code. A public organization Code.org, thanks to contributions of volunteers, was training more than 94 million schoolchildren around the world in informatics and programming in 16 languages.
 Many teachers argue that online learning could not replace the academic process with a live teacher in the classroom, and it is really a very serious problem. Web 2.0 already have an experience in bringing people together in groups on social networks, where the teacher can blog a course with the students while they can communicate with the teacher and with each other. Thus, live teacher remains, but now in the virtual audience.
 The Internet in the coming years will lead to revolutionary changes in education.

 Team Games On The Internet Are Developing Analytical Skills Of People

 Team games on the Internet are becoming more and more popular. For example, «Counter-Strike: Global Offensive» and «Team Fortress 2» are counting thousands of teams. Each pair of fighting teams is assigned to a single server with the fastest possible access to the game program. Teams are formed at the sites, each player is a character in the game having his own mission set by the team. The team forms the strategy of a game, considers all possible scenarios and chooses the best solution in each episode. The main advantages in the game are analytics, strategy, tactics, the interaction of team members, skills, the right choice of weapons, etc.
 DARPA Agency was interested in the possibility of using teams of gamers - difficult problems can be solved by using interesting and exciting games on the Internet. For example, math problem, for which no solution was found, can be represented as a puzzle; military analysts decisions can be checked in the form of team games, etc. There are also plans to create Cyberwar games with the participation of teams of hackers, and using gamefication systems of battle operations management. The DARPA Agency has included a Crowd Sourced Formal Verification (CSFV) featured program in its 2015 budget.

 Interactive Remote Medicine On The Internet

 In 2011, the HealthTap website was launched, that allows Internet users to interactively consult with doctors via video or text chat. Forbes commented on the appearance of this website in «The New Era Of Interactive Health» article. Currently, the site has more than 62 thousand American doctors working as consultants, and their services are in great demand. Google started to test «Doctor on Demand» mobile application, that also allows to get a doctor's consultation on health-related queries.
 Now in active use are personal diagnostic devices that allow doctors to remotely monitor and control a patient's health, for example, cardiac pacemakers and other wireless devices that work not only in the local network of the hospital, but also the Internet. Starting from 2000, «da Vinci Surgical System» robot is being used, which allows the surgeon to do the surgery remotely even from another city. There are many wearable devices connected with medical portals: for example, DuoFertility - transdermal patch consisting of a sensor and a wireless connection, which allows specialists to determine the most favorable days for conception and inform the woman about it.
 However, many problems still remain. For example, feature-rich Fitbit portable device placed the info on a site, available to search engines, including users’ personal data, their sexual activity, and this information became openly available all over the Internet. In addition, the users openly express their anxiety regarding a possibility of abuse of their personal medical information on the Internet by insurance companies, or criminals. It looks like a cryptographic protection is essential in remote medicine.

 Startups From Parents Garages Are Moving To The Internet

 Start-ups valuations are often incorrect: for example, in 1999, graduates of Stanford University, Sergey Brin and Larry Page offered to the management of then popular Excite to buy their Google site for one million dollars, but Excite refused. In October 2014, Google market capitalization has topped $300 billion. Investors have called the Excite’s decision a biggest investment mistake in history.
 Venture capital investors buy out the shares of a startup, control its work and decisions, demand its the market configuration. The creators of the startups don't like it – it distracts them from working. Thus, a crowdfunding emerged - investing in startups by volunteer donors on the Internet. Crowdfunding has become so effective and popular that the United States issued Jobs Act – a law that releases startups from securities and shares registration, if the investment amount does not exceed one million dollars.
 Kickstarter website, appeared in New York, is a virtual investment platform for startups and their donors; in 2010 it was recognized as the technological breakthrough. Volunteering donors become the first buyers of the new product of startups – in other words, the Kickstarter along with receiving investments creates its market. For example, Christina Mercando developed a Ringly - a jewelry ring wirelessly connected with mobile phone: when you receive a letter or message, the ring lights up. She sold first thousand rings in one day and earned more than a million dollars.
 Customer involvement in joint activities with the manufacturer is the marketing dream of all businesses. Such cooperation allows to modify the product or the service and increase sales volume. Crowdfunding is revolutionizing the investment market and could lead to a reconstruction or even the disappearance of venture funds.
 The Internet has become a platform for creating new technologies in the securities market and in the economy.

 Person to Person online economy

 «Person to Person» or «Sharing Economy» is the way of joint consumption of goods and services. Internet brings people together, they are willing to loan something to each other, to provide a service, and sometimes do it for free. They transport each other (Lyft, Sidecar, Uber), rent out their vacant rooms (Airbnb) or homes (HomeAway), leave dogs to look after (DogVacay, Rover), invite others to dine with htem (Feastly), rent out their cars (RelayRides, Getaround), boats (Boatbound) and tools (Zilok); on Etsy website, anyone can create his own virtual store to sell things without resellers.
 Sites provide platforms to establish contacts between the users of the Internet, and provide processing of the transactions. Many countries will have to change their legislation on the licensing of Internet businesses that contribute to the joint consumption. A technology of the joint consumption continues to develop.

 E-petition - Interaction Between People And Authorities On The Internet

 For the purpose of expressing dissatisfaction with the actions of the Government and demands for changes, E-petition technology was created and implemented on the Web - collective petitions (requests) from public organizations and citizens of any country to State authorities, local governments, international organizations, corporations, etc.
 For example, on change.org website, that is funded by volunteers, more than 80 million users from all over the world signed the demands addressed to the problems on human rights, the environment, culture, politics, etc. in various countries. Gopetition.com site offers free hosting and tools to create an E-petition by public organizations and citizens of any country that allows people around the world to promote their initiative and thereby make the necessary life changes.
 Governments of some countries consider E-petitions useful. For example, the United States in 2011 issued «We the People» - an act that allows any citizen of the United States over 13 years old to register on the Government website and sign petitions. If a petition gathers over 25 thousand signatures within a month, the Government is obliged to take a decision on the issues raised in the petition and formally publish its decision.
 E-petitions on the Internet contribute to the solving of actual problems, reduce the chance of crisis situations, street protests, unrest, create new ways of social interaction between people and authorities, allow each person to take the initiative.

 Virtual Currency On The Internet Changes The Financial World

 Even before the financial institutions that provide financial services, some countries had ITVS system allowing to move money, gold and jewels without financial documents; it still continues to function. Virtual Currency was at first used to trade in online games. In 2008 Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin Protocol, in 2009 he introduced the open-source software for its implementation. The virtual currency was established and is evolving by voluntary community of mathematicians and programmers, an active trade is under way. Starting from 30 cents in 2011, the price of Bitcoin rose to $1,135 by the end of 2013. The prices had sharp swings every year - by October 2014 the price dropped to $355. Such fluctuations are related to a struggle between opponents and supporters of the virtual currency, and the activities of speculators and criminals.
 The first success of virtual currency in the United States was that the Internal Revenue Service recognized the virtual currency as a property and it will be now taxed. Jerry Brown, Governor of California signed the law on legalization of virtual currency in the State; Rep. Steve Stockman has prepared «Virtual Currency Tax Reform Act» for adoption by the United States Congress. Businesses are now connected to the commercial circulation of virtual currency: for example, Dell and Microsoft started selling its products for virtual currency, some American universities have opened courses on studying virtual currency.
 Some countries reject the virtual currency and prohibit its use, but it does not depend on a state. The Internet user can buy or sell product (service) for virtual currency - in other words, he doesn’t need traditional money. This may cause the governments to lose effective leverages of controlling inflation/deflation (print/destruction of paper money) to manage the economy.
 In recent years, the pressure increased on Swiss banks, which for several centuries have attracted investors from various countries by guaranteeing confidentiality of their accounts to evade taxes. Now, after the United States imposed penalties on Swiss banks and increased the pressure on offshore companies, some investors are trying to use virtual currency for tax evasion.
 However, many different challenges still remain, and experience of working with virtual currency is very insufficient. Firstly, the virtual currency market capitalization today is too small to be significant for the world economy. Secondly, it is still absolutely unclear how the virtual currency can affect the financial world, economy, politics, the world order. However, it seems that funds and exchanges are going to connect to the virtual currency circulation, the banks will be dealing with data mining, and ATM network for operations with it is being created. There’s a possibility that banks operating only virtual currency may appear (they won’t even need safes). Finally, international organizations could go to the circulation of the virtual currency, and it can become a global convertibility basis for national currencies.
 The virtual currency on the Internet can cause serious changes to the financial world and the state systems.

 International Social Network of Online Tax Services

 At the tax services international Forum it was decided to establish the Joint International Tax Shelter Information and Collaboration (JITSIC) with a view to extending the cooperation. In a specialized social network tax services of different countries will inform each other about suspicious activity of taxpayers that would allow timely, before the expiration of the terms, to reveal tax havens, created by international corporations to reduce taxes, increase the value of the company, etc.
 Moreover, the tax authorities of various countries will exchange information on persons who develop and implement cross-border schemes for tax evasion, create shelters for the income. The new approach allows one joint inspection of an international corporation (company) by several tax authorities from various countries, which will greatly increase efficiency and reduces the time of audit. The integration of tax services will also benefit international corporations - rather than multiple checks in different countries and at different times, there will be one audit, coordinated by tax authorities of various states, where the offices of the corporation are registered.
 It looks like the process of integration of tax services with a view to coordinated inspections is beneficial to the states, and it will expand. Currently, JITSIC is joined by more than 38 countries.

 Virtual Citizenship And Remote Business Online

 In 2014, the Parliament of Estonia approved the law on the introduction of the virtual citizenship - here you can learn the details. In 2015, any businessman, residing outside the European Union, can receive the certificate of e-resident ID card – a virtual residence permit, by applying to the Embassy (Consulate) of Estonia and after appropriate check. Not even being a citizen of Estonia, a virtual citizen can open bank accounts online and carry out transactions through Estonian banks, as well as to register and manage companies.
 Internet in Estonia is considered to be the most advanced in Europe. Estonia is one of the first countries which created e-Government (all paperwork is digitized), and this is one of the first countries in the world allowing its citizens to vote over the Internet. Introducing the virtual residence permit, the Estonian Government plans to attract foreign businessmen that will create new jobs and expand the economy. The virtual residence owners will have tax incentives for their companies. A possibility to have a bank account in the Eurozone can attract a large number of foreign businessmen.
 However, there are a lot of questions. For example, will virtual citizens use Estonia as an offshore haven? Will Estonia rival Switzerland, Luxembourg and Singapore? How to deal with the danger of the virtual residence abuse by criminal organizations for money laundering? Will Estonia be able to protect virtual property of its citizens against hacker attacks? But, one thing is clear: many countries will closely examine and perhaps follow that experience – a virtual citizenship can spread widely.

 Personal TV Channels For The Leaders Of The Society On The Internet

 Former CNN and NBC workers, Jeff Gaspin and Jon Klein have developed TAPP – an online platform of personal television channels, created for popular and interesting public figures, political and religious leaders, artists, athletes, fashion designers etc. The main channels’ subscribers are devoted fans of these personalities, who are willing to pay for the subscription.
 Recently, personal TV channel of Sarah Palin, the former Alaska Governor and candidate for Vice President of the United States, was launched online. On the site without any filters, she communicates with her fans, edits and publishes topical video with comments on important issues facing the country. In addition, the channel provides a behind-the-scenes look at her personal life as a wife, mother, grandmother, neighbor etc. Subscribers may post on the channel their videos, ask questions, post comments, participate in video chat rooms, where they can talk directly with Palin and other subscribers of the channel. There was a lot of criticism and jokes about Sarah Palin’s channel, but investors supported the platform of TAPP, and one of them was Eric Schmidt, CEO of Google.
 Personal TV channels are not in abundance so far, but it clearly is a new manifestation of social interaction on the Internet between people and their leaders, and it will evolve.

 Market of Analysis and Trade of Users’ Personal Information Online

 Collection and analysis of data, which can be used to predict the behavior of consumers, is one of the main objectives of marketing. Personal data enable to simulate the behavior of more than 70% of Internet users. Observation of people, the assessment of the events and emotions in everyday life and in real time are reflected in the content, which allow businesses to conduct effective advertising.
 According to E-Marketer research, in 2014, the volume of electronic commerce reached one and a half trillion dollars. Forecast analysts with the purpose of promotion of goods (services) explore content of the user's personal data: age, place of residence, religion, nationality, languages, education, profession, marital status, children, parents, rare diseases, income, make of his car, sites he visits on the Web, pages on the social networks, his Web purchases, credit rating, etc.
 In 80-s of the last century «Information Broker» was introduced – a seller of personal information of Internet users. Currently, in the United States there are active traders: Acxiom Corporation, CoreLogic, Datalogix and other companies. The largest, Acxiom Corporation, owns approximately 12% of market for personal data trade; capitalization of the company in 2014 year amounted to $1.29 billion. The company uses open sources - everything that the user wrote on the Internet, for example, to his beloved, what was written about him in the press, even what is written about him in the phone book, and, of course, everything he bought.
 It is clear that Internet users do not like that. Regular complaints caused that United States Trade Commission had to publish the report on the results of audits of personal information traders, and passed to Congress its recommendations how to collect, analyze and trade information which is freely available. The right to collect and analyze the information available online, in the United States is not limited by the laws, so each person will have to learn how to protect his privacy and prevent unwanted leakages that usually happen on his own fault. There are numerous examples of such leaks - cybercriminals steal data and publish them online, and then, as the information went public, the traders can use personal information freely.
 It seems that Internet users should learn the rules of personal safety since childhood.

 From The "Semantic Web" To Virtual Computing Intelligence

 The possibility to create artificial intelligence that should work as a human mind is one of the most frequently discussed problems. There are two main areas of artificial intelligence (AI).
 The first direction - modeling intelligence based on neural networks. Its complexity can be expressed quantitatively: the human brain has about 100 billion of neurons, and synapses, which connect them, are approximately 100 trillion, plus the brain functioning still has very many puzzles.
 Will there ever be a digitized human brain? The European Commission allocates more than one billion Euros to create Neuropolis - a digital model of the human brain. Cognitive computing, used for the study of the human brain, develops actively. The IBM Corporation made a breakthrough, creating «Brain-Like» chip, which simulates a work of million neurons with 256 million synapses, and plans to develop a computer with 4096 Brain-Like chips, that will provide simulation of four billion neurons and one trillion of synapse. This will significantly expand the ability to design and validate accuracy of theories of the human brain functioning.
 The second direction is to create software systems that simulate the thinking, creativity, emotions. There are many examples: IBM Deep Blue that beats the chess masters, IBM Watson that answers the questions more correctly than many people, and so on. Memory of Watson keeps four terabytes of structured and unstructured information, collected online. Field of Watson application is being greatly extended – help to physicians in diagnosing and treatment of cancer, help to insurance companies in choosing the best insurance options, and many other destinations. Now Google, Facebook and other companies are actively engaged in research of Artificial General Intelligence.
 Beyond Verbal Company created technology of emotional analysis to build a map of the user's emotions: what mood he is in the moment, is he angry or happy, is he speaking convincingly or uncertain, what emotions are secondary, and what he is trying to suppress. This technology will allow to create software applications that, for example, will make the computer your "crony": you got a funny tweet - the computer will giggle with you, if you have a bad mood – your computer will try to cheer you up, telling jokes, etc. Creation of a virtual computational intelligence, «The Cyber Computational Intelligence (CCI)», is included in the budget of DARPA for 2015.
 The most visible manifestation of the human mind is a math, "the hard essence of things". Stephen Wolfram, an employee of the Illinois University, the founder of Wolfram Research and Wolfram Foundation Fund, creator of Mathematica programming language, and Wolfram Alpha, universal answers evaluator, the author of the popular book «A New Kind of Science», has recently published in his blog the article: «Computational Knowledge and the Future of Pure Mathematics», in which he formulated the idea of creation of computational intelligence. He suggested to use Wolfram Language for character recognition of mathematical axioms and theorems, published by mathematicians in the entire history of mathematics, to structure mathematical texts, and on the basis of numerical experiment to consistently review virtually all of the mathematics to identify errors, check for evidence of axioms and theorems, programmatically solve any mathematical problems and might even prove new axioms and theorems.
 Big and complex question remains: would it be possible ever to create a virtual artificial intelligence, superior to human intellect, and how its use can affect people's lives? Whether the human mind will evolve with the introduction of the virtual computational intelligence?
 Philosopher Nick Bostrom in the book, «Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies», described the potential threat to humanity by artificial intelligence. Elon Musk made a loud statement: "Artificial intelligence is the main threat to humanity and can be more dangerous than nuclear weapons".
 Really, are there ways to use virtual Computational Intelligence without any threat to mankind? The answer to this question is yet to come.

 We Will Live In a World of Additional Reality

 First, let’s see how using the projection rays to people you can see three-dimensional image quality. Magic Leap company, created by Rony Abovitz received 542 million dollars investment from Facebook, Google and Qualcommon for the development of new technologies of additional reality and computer vision. Unlike Google Glass where the image is displayed on the screen in glasses, Magic Leap has no screen - images are projected on the left and right eyes, which makes it possible to see the dynamically changing virtual three-dimensional image of high quality. Changing focus, you can position the 3D image in front of real objects or behind them. Referring the Sci-Fi movies "Star Wars", "Avatar" and others, Rony Abovitz called this technology "cinematic reality".
 Development of Virtual Reality technologies revolutionize people communication with the outside world. New interfaces technologies are being actively developed. For example, the Microsoft Research presented the IllumiRoom technology, which allows you to turn the surface of all objects in a room into a single interactive surface and to control them with moves of your hands. Another example: about 40% of people are either nearsighted or farsighted, and for them Vision Correcting Displays was created, that allows to see high quality images without glasses on a variety of devices. One more example: a «transparent car» developed in Japan - video camera mounted on the outside of the vehicle, allow you to project the image on the surface inside the car. When a driver looks back, he can see the image of objects that are located behind the vehicle. Finally, watch as Jimmy Kimmel interviews the popular singer Kacey Musgraves, who is presented in the form of holograms on stage.
 In virtual reality you can "touch" what you see – natural effect of touching will be achieved for example thanks to the pressure of ultrasonic waves at an area of the skin, like a thumb.
 Currently, major corporations are actively involved in the research and development of projects using virtual reality technology: Facebook - «Oculus VR», Google - «Project Tango», Microsoft - «RoomAlive», Samsung - «Gear VR», Sony - «Project Morpheus».
 The additional reality is fundamentally changing human interaction with information on the Internet. Page of the site will appear in front of you "in the air", you will be able using hand movement or voice to interact with content on the page, change its size, move, and so on. If you have a page on a social network and choose to communicate with its subscribers in additional reality, they all will be brought to you in the form of 3D images and will communicate with you or everyone else in your presence. It will be possible to arrange a meeting, for example, in the hall of a museum or at a table in a restaurant. Besides, it will be enough to call a friend using your voice, and he will appear before you in the form of virtual image to shake your hand, kiss or talk with you. All mobile phones, tablets, etc. will no longer be needed.
 In the coming years the world of additional reality will change people's lives.